A good harvest is obtained through constant and systematic housekeeping. To successfully achieve this goal, you need the right care technology, which consists not only in regular tillage, but also in the use of high-quality equipment.
However, the presence of a huge amount of inventory and all kinds of utensils does not always allow you to achieve the desired result.
Any factory product costs a lot of money, so a home-made cultivator for MTZ 80 is an excellent way out in such a situation.
- Cultivator: what is it, types, how is it used
- What materials will be required for DIY manufacturing
- Homemade cultivator for mtz 80
- Device for processing row spacings
- Cultivator on MTZ 80 with a gearbox from VAZ
- The device and scope of the disc harrow
- Features of use and principle of operation
- Disc Harrow Assembly Procedure
Cultivator: what is it, types, how is it used
This concept covers a variety of agricultural machinery, the main purpose of which is soil cultivation. According to the technology of work, the presented type of equipment is subdivided into cultivated and steam products.
The use of the first type is relevant when cultivating the soil before directly sowing. The second representatives are used when cultivating the land with plants sown on it.
In most cases, cultivators are used for the following tasks:
- weed removal;
- moisture retention;
A distinctive feature of such devices is loosening without turning over the layers of the earth.
Among the many varieties of cultivating machines, there are representatives with fixed cutting elements that perform work by means of traction forces, as well as with active knives driven by an engine.
By the type of drive system, there are manual models, motor-cultivators and elements used with more complex equipment, for example, with a tractor.
Currently, the following types of cultivators are used:
- with working disc elements;
- with lancet structures;
- forestry with disc type of loosening and discrete micro-raising.
Forest type cultivators
The presented type is intended for soil reclamation on forest plots brought into use after the felling of trees. The peculiarities on such soils include carrying out work with obviously difficult conditions - the presence of stumps and felling residues.
Such devices are installed on skidders or forwarders and are driven by the hydraulic systems of the units of the main machines. As noted above, being subdivided into disc openers and models with discrete micro-elevation, such devices are designed to process significant volumes of soil with all kinds of foreign objects.
At the same time, a distinctive feature of these varieties is that loosening in the first case is carried out by means of a harrow with an active drive, and in the second, due to the implementation of micro-raising.
The presented term means a double overturning of the humus layer with a special creation of a place for planting and rapid growth of future seedlings.
Such a model is a power unit, the main purpose of which is soil processing by means of a milling cutter. The distinctive features of this model in comparison with the classic walk-behind tractor include light weight and the absence of a power take-off shaft in the composition.
The listed advantages of a motor-cultivator endow the device with greater mobility, which makes it possible to save labor resources to a much lesser extent and to carry out processing in narrow areas.
Depending on the mechanism that drives the power unit, the presented type is found in the following models:
- Gasoline with two- or four-stroke engines.
- Electric with the ability to be powered from a stationary electrical network or battery.
What materials will be required for DIY manufacturing
As a raw material for the manufacture of such equipment, you will need to prepare metal profiles and steel sheets. It is necessary to add pipes with different cross-sections to the presented list.
The ability to vary the diameters allows you to create long handles that easily shift the center of gravity of the equipment in the desired direction. As tools for making a cultivator, you should choose a grinder, welding and a drill with a set of metal drills.
Channel bars and profiled pipes allow you to create a spacious frame for accommodating auxiliary equipment and cutting elements.
Homemade cultivator on MTZ-80
For the independent manufacture of a cultivator for the MTZ-80 universal row-crop tractors, it is necessary to provide a special mount. Otherwise, the construction assembly technology is no different from a banal tool for loosening the soil with the ability to attach it to the power unit.
The cultivator is a rectangular frame made of a square metal profile with fixed cutting planes.
The number of such plates in most cases ranges from 8-15 elements.
Between such flat cutters, a pair of wheels and a harrow should be installed for stability and control of the depth of immersion of the structure. The last element should be fixed with chains to the edge of the bearing plane.
It is necessary to mount the place for attaching the main baking powder in such a way that it remains possible to adjust its height and pressing force.
When installing, it is important to calculate the future safety, to exclude breakdowns and jamming of the components.
We offer you to watch an interesting video about a do-it-yourself cultivator:
Device for processing row spacings
The most common household tool is the interrow opener. The relevance of using such a product is due to the need to process narrow areas.
This, in turn, requires compactness, simplicity and ease of use from such a cultivator.
The model "Hedgehog" copes well with the cultivation of such allotments.
For self-production of such a device, you must adhere to the following sequence of actions:
- Purchase a stalk.
- Mount the U-shaped bracket with holes at the ends.
- Prepare wheels and shaft.
In this case, the rotating elements can be made by hand. Old steel pancakes of small dimensions with welded metal pins are perfect as such products. The last parts can be made from reinforcement with a cross section of 8-10 mm. When installing such spikes, it is necessary to give a conical shape.
Prepared cutting elements - cutters are pushed onto the axle. In this case, the fixation of such a structure is carried out by means of a bolted connection through the prepared lugs.
At the moment, the use of special miniature devices is a fairly common occupation in suburban areas.
We offer you to watch a video about a homemade cultivator on MTZ 80 designed for hilling:
Cultivator on MTZ 80 with a gearbox from VAZ
Most people, when trying to assemble a walk-behind tractor with their own hands, are faced with the problem of choosing a reliable gearbox. Many of these devices are divided into non-collapsible (cheaper models) and collapsible (with a high price range).
Analogs from VAZ are an excellent alternative to such mechanisms. Having saved on the purchase of a gearbox in this case, it becomes necessary to recalculate the rated power and mechanical transmission of rotary motion. This circumstance is due to the characteristics of this part, laid down by the manufacturer.
The positive aspects of installing such a device, despite the difficulties in design, will be the final cheapness of the assembled cultivator and the relatively easy assembly technology. The prevalence of VAZ spare parts and the availability of component parts on the market will facilitate the task of a possible repair.
The device and scope of the disc harrow
The presented type of device, being an alternative to a cultivator and a plow, is actively used for processing soils with a moisture level of no more than 25-30%. The harrow consists of specially angled steel discs.
With their help, the adjustment of the immersion of the cutting elements and the angle of processing are carried out.
According to the type of construction, such a mechanism is subdivided into mesh and hinged models. Hinged mechanisms are designed for regular soil cultivation to a depth of 10 to 15 cm.
Such constructions are used for:
- pre-sowing and daily cultivation of the land;
- weed control;
- grinding rotted residues;
- rejuvenation of allotments;
- leveling and increasing the density of the soil on the site.
The mesh variety is designed to solve the following tasks:
- processing of soils with a crust formed due to heavy rainfall or drought;
- provision of air ventilation and soil saturation with oxygen;
- preservation and embedding of moisture while applying mineral and organic fertilizers;
- reducing weediness of crops.
These models are applicable for plants with a stem height of no more than 25-30 cm.
Such mechanisms are made in the form of a mesh with evenly spaced metal spikes. The run of the teeth is selected depending on the intended functionality.
According to their intended use, these devices are subdivided into:
Such products are lightweight and are intended for inter-row processing of small garden plots. Such harrows allow you to loosen the soil to a depth of no more than 10-12 cm.
The use of these harrows is important after tilling operations.
Some models are additionally equipped with ballast boxes to level the fixture. With the help of such mechanisms, it is possible to loosen the soil to a depth of no more than 15-17 cm.
Based on their name, such divisions are designed to cultivate difficult lands in swampy and forest areas. Processing is carried out to a depth of 20-25 cm.
Features of use and principle of operation
Cultivation of the soil is carried out by cutting disc elements with a diameter of 45 to 50 cm into the soil. Placing bushings with discs on the same axis allows the structure to rotate, resulting in more efficient tillage.
The installation of such batteries requires maintaining an angle of penetration into the ground, called the angle of attack. This indicator should vary from 5 to 20 degrees.
The angle is chosen depending on the hardness of the soil. The denser the top layer, the larger the angle of attack should be.
The principle of operation of the harrow, fixed at a minimum distance from the tractor, is based on the destruction of the upper layer and the lifting of the lower layers. To increase the efficiency of processing, it is necessary to ensure uniform removal of the front and rear discs.
When moving the tractor along the perimeter of the cultivated area, the disks of the first line open the top layer of soil. The rise of the soil is carried out due to the spherical shape of each of the installed discs. Then such layers are shifted to the side and overturned.
The second battery returns the inverted earth to its original location. As a result of such actions, the required loosening is performed to the required depth.
Disc Harrow Assembly Procedure
Self-production of such a device significantly saves the final estimate.
To create a harrow at home, you need to be patient and prepare the following materials:
- pipe with a cross section of 50 mm;
- square frame made of U100 channel;
- a pair of old wheels;
- medium harrows in the amount of 5 pcs.;
- rubberized belt.
On the basis of a previously prepared drawing and verified dimensions, the assembly of a structure consisting exclusively of belts is carried out. Installation on a tractor is carried out according to the triangle rule.
During the operation of the cultivator, the wheels must hold the frame strictly in a horizontal position. Otherwise, the risk of tilting, deformation of the mechanism and its failure increases.
A properly assembled structure is practical, maneuverable and efficient in loosening the soil.
Farming is a complex multi-stage process. The fertility of the soil depends on the correct care of the soil both before planting and after planting.
Timely processing of plots and removal of the dried upper crust during cultivation allows saturating the upper soil layer with the necessary supply of air and retaining moisture.
Knowledge of the technical characteristics of the material at hand and the correct assembly will allow not only to significantly save on the stages of assembly and creation of the cultivator, but also ensure uninterrupted efficient work on the cultivation of the site and obtaining a rich harvest.