Hornbeam is a fairly widespread tree, its powerful, spreading crown and original decorative appearance arouse genuine interest among plant breeders and landscape park developers.
- Description of the plant
- Brief description of plant varieties
- Sapling planting rules
- Agrotechnical recommendations for care
- Disease and pest control
- How does the plant reproduce?
- Using wood
Hornbeam is a deciduous monoecious plant from the birch family. In ancient times, it grew in Asian countries and China, but now it is common in Europe, the Baltic regions, Russia, Belarus. The height of the tree ranges from 5 to 25 meters, and sometimes reaches 30 meters, the width of the crown is 6-8 meters. The crown is dense, rounded.
The leaves are small, alternate, dark green with denticles along the edges. The length of the leaves also varies, 5-17 cm. The reverse side of the leaves is pubescent and has villi, and the veins are clearly visible on the front of the leaves.
It looks especially good in autumn, when the foliage acquires all shades of yellow, red and brown. The hornbeam has a smooth gray bark with longitudinal ribbing and cracks on the trunk.
In April - May, when flowering occurs, flowers of both sexes appear on it in the form of earrings. As soon as the first leaves bloom, the first inflorescences appear on the branches. At the end of flowering, it forms fruits that look like nuts. Small, brownish - brown shade 3-5 mm. Fruits appear on trees that are more than 15-17 years old.
Brief description of plant varieties
There are about 30 varieties, most of them grow in Asian countries, only 3 species are represented in Russia, and 2 species grow in Europe.
It grows on average up to 20 meters, with a spreading crown. Loves partial shade and sunny places. The crown is patterned and grows in the shape of an egg.
It has a distinctive feature - light, translucent leaves, shaped like a heart. The height of the hornbeams (large hornbeam thickets) is 12-20 meters. Places of growth - Korea, Japan, in the South and East of Primorsky Territory.
The eastern species is found on mountain slopes. In places where the hornbeam tree grows, the soil is held together on stony dry embankments in the mountains and is kept from slipping, moisture is saved. The shape of the tree is curved.
Distributed in the states of North America. Whimsical to natural conditions, loves warmth and shaded places. Not resistant to frost, chooses places most often near rivers, reservoirs and swamps. The crown shape is always bushy.
Under natural conditions, it grows in the Caucasus, Asia, and the Crimea. This species is short, about 5 meters high. Often forms thickets, especially in the Transcaucasus. The best neighbors are: chestnut, beech, oaks.
It is a subspecies of Karolinsky, but has even more pronounced decorative qualities and is often used with landscape designs. It grows slowly, the crown is bushy and can be given any desired shape: from square to round and curly. He is calm about pruning and transplants.
A low-rise species, more often found in China, in the highlands. The species is decorative, beautiful, but rarely found, which is why it is appreciated by lovers of this plant. The color of the foliage is constantly changing throughout the entire life cycle.
Sapling planting rules
This tree is very convenient and unassuming to grow. It has a high resistance to frost, easily tolerates drought and high temperatures, is little susceptible to diseases and pests. The main thing is to observe the watering regime, plant a young tree correctly, carry out sanitary pruning and maintain the crown in the desired shape.
The most important part of growing is planting, and it is worth taking this work seriously and carefully. Experts consider autumn to be the most favorable time for this.
The seedling is planted about 30-40 days before the onset of the first frost. If you want to plant it in the spring, then you need to be in time before the buds appear, otherwise the plant can get sick for a long time and die.
It is not difficult to choose a landing site, because almost any area is suitable for it: from sunny to a place in the shade of tall trees. If a high variety with a spreading crown is chosen for planting, then it is still better to settle it away from other ornamental plants.
Almost any soil is suitable for growing, even poor and depleted soil is suitable for planting. Anything other than too wet and waterlogged. It will not take root in such soil, it will not grow. But still, if summer residents and gardeners want to get a strong, healthy and fast growing plant, it is worth paying attention to the soil for planting: the soil should be loose, light, nutritious and fertilized. Before planting, the hole is carefully prepared: it is made in a size of 50: 50, weeds are removed and spilled with one bucket of water. In this form, the hole is left for 1-3 days in order for it to weather and settle.
On the day of planting, dry foliage and fertilizers are placed on the bottom, which are thoroughly mixed with the ground in the hole. Now the seedling can be placed inside, evenly distribute the roots and sprinkle all the free space with soil. The soil is slightly trampled from above with your feet, watered abundantly so that the seedling takes root faster.
It is advisable to mulch the soil in the perimeter circle with wood chips, grass, spruce mulch for slow evaporation of moisture from the soil. Other seedlings should be planted no closer than 30 cm, as young seedlings require space to grow and strengthen. If all planting work is done well, after 2-3 weeks new buds and young leaves will appear on the branches.
Agrotechnical recommendations for the care of a hornbeam
Care focuses mainly on timely watering, disease control, pest control and crown pruning.
Pruning is necessary, as slow growth contributes to the decorative appearance. You can give it absolutely any shape and decorate your site. Often planted in parks, alleys to give it an interesting shape and improve the territory.
It is imperative to cut dry, damaged, frozen in development and broken branches in time. Sometimes those branches are removed that take too much vitality: extra shoots with a lot of buds.
Disease and pest control
Although the plant is resistant to adverse influences, it sometimes gets sick and is attacked by pests.
The most common are:
- Heart rot. When suffering from this disease, black spots are clearly visible on the bark. If found and cured in time, it will not die. The best prevention is to plant in open, sunny areas.
- Silkworm. These insect pests feed on sap and leaves, fresh shoots, causing harm. The foliage begins to dry out, curl up and fall off, the bark cracks. In this case, treatment with special pest control agents will help.
- Dying off, drying up of branches. Plants with a lifespan of more than 50-55 years are susceptible to this phenomenon. Having reached this age, branches often die off and grow more slowly. This disease can be fought by timely pruning of dried up branches.
How does the plant reproduce?
Reproduction occurs in several ways:
The stalk for propagation is selected from strong healthy shoots, cut off from them by 15-18 cm. It is usually prepared in late autumn, wrapped in cloth and stored until spring at a low temperature. 30-50 days before planting in the soil, they are transferred to room temperature, treated with a solution of potassium permanganate for diseases (soaked for a day), and why they are put in clean water for 2-3 days. Cuttings are initially planted in prepared containers with fertilized soil, carefully watered. And only after the appearance of the first 4-5 leaves, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
The best, but labor-intensive, method is seed propagation. They are harvested at the end of September, stored in fabric bags or cardboard boxes at low temperatures. 30-40 days before disembarkation, they are warmed at 20-25 degrees. Seed stratification is often carried out. For higher germination rates, nuts are soaked in warm water, and then planted in prepared containers. The first shoots appear after 2-3 weeks, after the appearance of real 3-4 leaves on them, you can plant the shoots on the site.
Reproduction by layering
An unpopular way among gardeners. In it, when planting the mother tree, a trench is made next to it for layering. This small moat is fertilized and moistened. It is best to squeeze young shoots, they are tilted and sprinkled with earth. For quick rooting, an incision is made along the selected layer with a knife. Future roots will emerge from this incision. If the method was performed correctly, after 3 weeks shoots will appear and you can separate it.
Where is the hornbeam tree used? It is used in many areas and industries:
- In the national economy
- In landscape design
- For decorative cultivation in pots
- In medicine
The wood is strong, durable, but difficult to work and polish. Therefore, it must be properly and well dried, and after staining, it is imperative to process it from decay processes.
Most often, wood is used for the production of cutting boards, garden tools, parquets and floor coverings, sports equipment and for the manufacture of musical instruments.
In the livestock industry, bark is used in the process of dressing hides, foliage and branches are fed to livestock, nuts are used as food. And in cosmetology, essential oils are used, which are isolated from foliage.
Landscape designers have long fallen in love with hornbeam for its great possibilities of using it: they decorate park areas, alleys, gardens, make fancy hedges and spectacular single objects. And lovers of "Bonsai" plant it in pots and admire its unusual shapes.
They are also widely used in medicine. Thanks to the tannins, caffeic, gallic acids, aldehydes, essential oils and ascorbic acid contained in the bark and leaves, many medicines and infusions, decoctions for traditional medicine are produced.
- treating disorders and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract
- fight against brain tumors
- improve the functioning of the circulatory system
- treatment of infertility and complicated pregnancies
However, as with any medicine, there are contraindications and side effects:
Rarely - indigestion
Deterioration of the urinary system
Therefore, consultation with the attending physician is imperative.
You can find out where the hornbeam tree grows in Russia, in which industries and for what purposes it is used, how to choose the right place for planting and how to grow it correctly, by watching the video: