Previously, grapes were traditionally grown in the south, using uncovered technology. The grapes are grown in the south of Western Siberia, in Altai, the Urals, the Far East and in the Moscow region.
- Autumn or spring is better for pruning
- Summer Vineyard Classes
- Autumn pruning rules
- Basic trimming
- The right choice of tools
Autumn or spring is better for pruning
Correctly chosen time for pruning grapes will allow you to achieve the goals that it pursues:
- Increase the volume of the harvest
- Improve taste, increase size
- Stimulate maturation
- Facilitate vine care
When growing grapes using covering technology, the time for formative pruning is autumn. After pruning, it is easier to remove the vine from the trellis and lay it down for the winter. Less covering material is needed. In autumn, cut wounds heal faster than in spring.
Reference. In the spring, it is recommended to prune the unfertile, young vine. An uncut vine tolerates the winter more easily. The average daily temperature during pruning is no higher than 5 ° C.
Summer Vineyard Classes
In the summer, growers engage in regulatory pruning, or in the language of growers:
- do a pinch
- break out shoots
All of these activities are aimed at ensuring that more nutrients go to the bunches. For this, excess shoots are removed. Berries ripen better on a well-lit vine. The absence of extra branches improves the ventilation of the bush, the grapes are less likely to get sick.
Pinching - removal of the crown of the shoot (10 cm) is carried out before flowering. It stops growth, all the forces of the plant go to flowering. Stepsons - lateral shoots, removed in July after flowering has ended. This work is done weekly.
Embossing - deep pinching (40 cm) is needed to accelerate ripening. They spend it at the end of the summer. The secateurs are not used, they are broken off by hand. At least 14 leaves are left on the shoot.
Autumn pruning rules
In the fall, pruning is carried out in two stages. Of these, the first stage is preparatory, starting after harvesting. The second stage is the main one, it begins after the leaves have flown around. Preparation includes removing:
- weak shoots
- biennial vines
- fruiting links
On a note. If you neglect pruning, the bush slows down growth, the buds at the base of the bush stop forming, shoots grow only on last year's layers, the yield drops noticeably.
It is easier for a beginner to learn the rules of pruning on young grape bushes, he cannot prune an old, neglected bush. In regions with a temperate climate, it is worthwhile to master the fan-shaped method of formation. Advantages of the method:
- rational use of space
- bushes are easier to lay and cover for the winter
- after freezing, you can restore the sleeves
- you can adjust the yield of the vine
First two years
During this period, the grower forms a bush, prepares it for fruiting. For the first year, you need to get 1, preferably 2 shoots with ripe buds. A good shoot is considered to be about 7 mm thick. Of these, the grower will form the sleeves. In spring or autumn, one-year-old shoots are cut into 4 buds.
In the second summer season, the seedling forms 4-8 shoots. Unripe shoots are discarded and cut out. Strong, ripe shoots are left. They are cut by 10-15 eyes long. We recommend starting with 4 sleeves. Therefore, leave 4 shoots.
Third and subsequent years
On last year's vine, 2-4 vines grow from the buds left. Of these, the grower forms the fruit link - the fruiting arrow, the replacement knot. The vine that is located below is put on the replacement knot, no more than 3-4 buds are left. The norm of the eyes on the fruit arrow is from 8 to 10.
Pruning grapes on video:
In the fourth year, a fruiting link is also formed. The vine that bears fruit in the summer is cut out, leaving a 1.5 centimeter stump. With this pruning at the end of summer, a four-year-old bush consisting of 4 arms is obtained. In subsequent years, autumn pruning is needed to maintain the resulting shape. Old sleeves are cut out, preparing new ones according to the same pattern.
The right choice of tools
The challenge for the grower is to minimize the damage that pruning does to the plant. Smooth cut is a guarantee of quick wound healing. It is possible to get it if the grower has a quality tool at hand: a pruner, a delimber. By the type of functions performed and the principle of operation, they are:
Bypass pruners are needed to trim non-lignified shoots (green). Smooth cutting without deformation is provided by two curved blades: cutting - upper convex, sharpening on one side, lower (stop) - concave without sharpening. The cutting blade moves along the abutment blade. This design allows you to make an even cut, which quickly overgrows.
Thrust secateurs are used to cut dry vines. The allowable diameter is 3 cm. The blades have double-sided, wedge-shaped sharpening. During operation, the upper blade (cutting blade) rests against the lower blade (thrust blade).
The lineup is large. When choosing, the material from which the blades are made plays a role. High carbon steel blades sharpen well but rust. Stainless steel pruners do not rust, but are less sharp. The presence of additional functions facilitates the work:
- safety lock
- two modes - fast, power
- width adjuster
The most convenient and expensive pruning shears have a ratchet mechanism that allows you to easily cut thick branches. The lopper is a large pruner. By the type of cutting, they are also of two types. Can cut 5 cm thick branches. Loppers made in Germany and Finland are popular.
The most demanded tools of firms:
There are many subtleties in the cultivation of grapes. You need to understand the peculiarities of care and methods of forming a vine before buying a seedling. Knowing the initial theory of pruning and a good tool, you can start growing grapes in your summer cottage.