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Many factors affect potato yield. If you correctly approach the issue of growing potatoes, you can get up to 500 kg of harvest from one hundred square meters.
- Autumn soil preparation
- How to prepare the soil in spring
- Preparation of planting material
- Variety selection
- Modern method of increasing yields
- Planting potatoes
Autumn soil preparation
It is worth noting that potatoes should be grown in sunny areas as they are light-loving plants. The following types of soil are suitable for potatoes:
- sandy loam
- black earth
Good results cannot be achieved on clay and sandy soil. Such soils must be pre-prepared in a special way, then the yield indicators will significantly improve. Work on increasing yields begins in the fall. At this time, they begin to prepare the ground. In the fall, soil preparation begins. They act as follows:
- the site is cleared of weeds and remnants of the previous harvest
- the soil is carefully dug up, digged on a shovel bayonet and overturned a layer of earth
- so that the soil is frozen and the pests die from winter frosts, the earth is not leveled or tamped
- in order to protect against harmful insects, potash fertilizer or ash is introduced into the soil in the fall
Potash fertilizers make the potatoes friable, they can be applied in the spring. But chlorine-containing potash fertilizers are applied only in the fall, since they can worsen the quality of the crop. The soil set aside for planting potatoes should not be overly acidic. If, after all, the soil is acidic, liming is carried out in the autumn. With the help of autumn preparation, you can achieve not only high yields, but also affect the quality of the future harvest.
How to prepare the soil in spring
In order for the soil to retain the spring moisture, it is necessary, as soon as the earth dries out a little and begins to crumble, loosen it with a rake. After the top layer of the earth warms up under the sun's rays, it is again dug up and loosened. Spring processing is carried out in order to loosen the soil and retain spring moisture, which is of particular value.
Also, the soil is treated to prevent the spread of pests. In the spring, fertilizers are applied to the land where potatoes will grow. Suitable for fertile soil:
- superphosphate - 2 kg
- potash fertilizers - no more than 1.5 kg
Poor soil is fed with a large amount of fertilizers, the amount of the listed fertilizers is increased by one and a half times. Peat soil requires:
- superphosphate - no more than 4 kg
- potash fertilizers - about 2.5 kg
- boric acid - up to 50 g
Any type of soil can be fed with wood ash. For one hundred square meters, you can take no more than 10 kg. Manure, compost or superphosphate are used to feed the soil. They are deepened into the soil by half a shovel. The tubers are planted in well-heated and prepared soil, otherwise the vegetables may rot.
Preparation of planting material
Before planting, the planting material is disinfected. This will affect yields and protect against diseases and pests. Tubers can be soaked in solution, or can be processed from a sprayer. It is better to do this when the eyes have not yet appeared. The disinfectant solution can be made in one of the following ways:
- copper sulfate - 5 g
- boric acid - 15 g
- potassium permanganate - 0.5 g
- water - 10 l
- superphosphate - 60 g
- urea - 40 g
- copper sulfate - 5 g
- potassium permanganate - 1 g
- boric acid - 10 g
The material begins to be prepared in advance for a month and a half before planting. After processing with solutions, the tubers are laid out in a bright room, while direct sunlight should be avoided, otherwise the potatoes may wrinkle. But even a dark room will not work; without light, the sprouts will be thin, underdeveloped.
You should not choose too small potatoes for planting. Small tubers will grow from the little things. In order for the harvest to be solid, you should opt for tubers weighing about 100 g.
If the same potato variety is grown annually on the same plot for 5-6 years, then soon the variety will degenerate, in this case, a decent harvest cannot be expected. The potato variety needs to be renewed every five years. Planting material can be grown independently, it will be both economical and reliable planting potatoes.
More than 30 varieties of potatoes are grown in Russia. Early varieties are distinguished by good yield. Along with the early one, you can also grow a late variety for harvesting it for the winter. But later varieties are suitable only for the southern regions of Russia. Among the early varieties, experienced gardeners choose the following types:
They ripen within two months. Mid-early potatoes ripen after 70 days. Among this type of potato, the most popular are:
Late potatoes mature for 110 days. Recommended varieties for planting:
Modern method of increasing yields
Agronomists have developed many techniques that improve the yield of potatoes. For this, cuts are made on the tuber. They can be different:
- A deep cut across the potato thus activates the lower sprouts, which most often do not sprout.
- An annular cut, which is made in the upper part of the tuber, allows the internal juices to be evenly distributed inside the potato.
Making cuts on the planting material, it is necessary to process the knife in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This method, although it affects the yield, at the same time carries a certain amount of risk. Because the smell of cut potatoes can be a pest bait.
Potatoes are planted in warm soil, if they are planted in unheated soil, the tubers will freeze and stop developing. Planting technology can be different, the most popular of them are:
- into the hole
- on the crest
- between furrows
The choice of the technique is carried out taking into account the characteristics of the area. If the groundwater rises to the surface, then it is better to land on a ridge, the height of which is about 15 cm. In the absence of groundwater, stop the choice on landing in the holes.
You do not need to place potatoes close to each other, there should be enough space for the growth and development of both tubers and tops. The bushes are placed at a distance of 40 cm from each other, and between the ridges they make indents equal to one meter. A week later, the first shoots will appear, until this time of planting, you can not water.
It is required to weed from weeds, while simultaneously loosening the soil and saturating it with oxygen. Further, the ridges are loosened after each rain. By following a few simple rules, you can achieve amazing results and get a high yield of potatoes.
Video on how to increase potato yield: