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Roses are considered the most striking decoration of any garden. Please note that not all varieties need to be pruned. But varieties such as: Chinese, Bourbon and tea roses need not only pruning, but also shelter.
Winter hardiness of roses can be determined by their color. The most fragile and weakest are yellow roses. White flowers have medium frost resistance, and pink-red ones are the most cold-resistant roses. You need to cut flowers in late autumn, just before the shelter. It is advisable to do this on a calm and clear day.
- Basic rules for pruning
- Types of pruning depending on the variety
- The order of pruning roses
- How to cover roses for the winter
Basic rules for pruning
Pruning is done only with a sharp pruner, since a blunt tool can make a ragged cut, or even crush the stem. Such stems will heal for a very long time, due to infection. Too dense shoots are cut down with a special hacksaw. The cut is made near the bud that has not yet had time to germinate. The distance between the cut and the kidney is about 0.5 cm.
The stem should be cut at a certain slope so that water can drain from it. Thus, the cut site will not be affected by various infections. To prevent overlapping shoots, pruning should be done on the outer bud. In this case, the center of the bush will be well lit and ventilated. The stems should be shortened to a white core. Pruning is best done on a clear, sunny day.
Pruning roses is needed to strengthen them in general. Also, carrying out this procedure provides the buds and stems with access to light and airing the crown. Pruning old branches causes new buds to be set, from which large flowers and strong shoots are obtained. You can cut off not only adult bushes, but also young seedlings. It is very important to remember that unripe shoots cannot be left for the winter, otherwise they will rot under cover. This will directly lead to the onset of disease and fungal infection.
Types of pruning depending on the variety
To improve the garden every year, you need to pay attention to the variety of flowers during the pruning process. There are three types of rose pruning:
- Long cut. After the stem is shortened, rather long shoots with buds remain at its base. This pruning is used for varieties of roses such as Bengal, English and park roses. Due to the long pruning, the roses bloom earlier. But this type of trimming has one drawback. If you cut flowers in this way for several years in a row, then their shape is lost, and the color becomes less abundant.
- Medium pruning. Shoots are trimmed by 35 cm, leaving about five buds at the base. Such pruning causes the active growth of young shoots. Such types of roses as English and park roses cannot be pruned.
- Short cut. It is produced in the most extreme cases, since as a result the frost resistance of the plant is significantly reduced. Short pruning of roses consists in completely cutting off the shoot, leaving only one base. This type of pruning is used for varieties prone to tillering.
The order of pruning roses
First of all, you need to cut off all the leaves on the flowers. You should also remove all small-growing shoots that are wild rose sprouts. If you do not deal with the removal of these shoots, then the bush may degenerate over time. All old and dry, frequently growing shoots should also be eliminated. This also applies to immature shoots, which, when rotting, infect the entire bush with a fungus.
Pruning roses for the winter on video:
Perfectly, a pruned plant should have three or four young shoots. The next stage of pruning is to dig up the area under the roses. Shoots of climbing varieties, you need to bend to the ground and cover with spruce branches.
How to cover roses for the winter
Air dry method. Rose bushes are sprinkled with ashes and fenced with wooden shields. Further, the rows of flowers are covered from above with a film, and with the onset of severe cold weather, the ends are also sealed with a film. The space formed between the shields must be covered with peat or earth. Shelter with roofing material.
Shelter with roofing felt has a complex, but at the same time very reliable design. To create a special frame, you need to install a frame made of reinforcement over the rose bushes. Roofing material is installed on top of the frame, leaving open ends. When the air temperature cools down to -10 degrees, the ends of the structure should be closed with roofing material.
It is necessary to remove the structure gradually, starting in March, and its complete removal takes place in the month of May.
The preliminary shelter of roses, you need to start in mid-October. This must be done with the help of pine spruce branches. Laying is done in dry weather, at temperatures over six degrees. Before the very shelter of roses, they need to be treated with a solution of copper sulfate. If the flowers are damaged by rust, this solution should be more concentrated. After processing, the bushes are covered with peat. After that, all plants are covered with a film.