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You need to take care of the grapes regularly. The vine, after bearing fruit, becomes weak, because all the energy is spent on ripening the berries.
Every year the vine must be prepared for wintering. Preparations begin at the end of summer. Pruning and covering are among the most important operations in grape care.
- How to properly water grapes
- Autumn fertilization of grapes
- Pruning old grapes
- How to shelter grapes for the winter
How to properly water grapes
During the ripening of the berries, the vine needs abundant watering. With a lack of moisture, the berries lose their taste and appearance. In the fall, after harvesting, the vine is rarely watered, and care should be taken to ensure that the soil is well saturated with moisture. This is necessary to saturate the soil and root system.
If the grape bushes are located on sandy soils, then they need to be watered often, but with a small amount of liquid. When placing a vineyard on clay soils, watering should be carried out rarely, but abundantly. The frequency, as well as the timing of watering, are determined taking into account the climate in the region.
To prepare the vine for winter in mid-autumn, watering is carried out thoroughly once. Small grooves can be made to prevent water from spreading over the surface. Some gardeners install pipes near bushes for this purpose.
In order to avoid compaction of the soil, it must be constantly loosened. As a result, the bushes overwinter more easily and the moisture will last longer.
Autumn fertilization of grapes
The vine's nutrients are severely depleted after harvest. To replenish them, the plant needs to be fed. The condition in the winter depends on how the feeding will be carried out, as well as fruiting in the next season. As a top dressing, you can take organic fertilizers and mix with wood ash in equal proportions.
There is no need to dig up the soil for fertilization. It is enough to cover the surface. To increase the amount of calcium in the soil, it is recommended to add 100-150 g of lime, and then dig up the soil.
Video on how to prune and cover grapes in the fall:
An adult bush should be fertilized every 3-4 years at the end of autumn. They take fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. For 1 sq. m. you will need 50 g of a phosphorus-potassium mixture. The soil around the bush can be watered with a mixture of superphosphate and potassium salt in a 2: 1 ratio. Such fertilizers are also used in dry form.
For depleted soil, additional elements are added to the mixture: boric acid, potassium iodine, manganese sulfate and zinc. Such an effective feeding will help you to successfully overwinter.
Pruning old grapes
Pruning should be done after leaves fall after 2-3 weeks. At this time, the plant will be in a dormant state. It is not recommended to carry out this procedure earlier, since after the fall, the process of photosynthesis continues. The optimal time for pruning shoots is mid-September.
If this requirement is not met, pruning will disrupt the accumulation of nutrients. Tightening with pruning should also not be. With the onset of cold weather, the vine becomes very fragile, and any manipulation will lead to various damage.
To create the correct shape of the bush, remove diseased, old and dried shoots. They are piled up and burned. This will prevent pest larvae from spreading through the vineyard. Not only healthy shoots should be left, but also shoots that perform a spare function.
In the middle of autumn, the fruit link is formed. It consists of a knot and an arrow. In order for the link to develop correctly, the strongest shoots that have reached the wire are cut off. The replacement knot is a shoot that is located at the bottom of the bush. You need to cut it so that 3 eyes are visible. The upper shoot is cut, leaving 5-6 buds. This is a fruit arrow.
You need to cut off all shoots 20 cm long. If the shoots reach 30 cm in length, then only 10% of the entire branch should be pruned. After the procedure, lubricate the cuts with garden varnish. You can prepare it yourself using wax, paraffin, rosin and other substances.
This product prevents rotting. This manipulation rejuvenates the bush, which allows you to collect a rich and large harvest. In addition, when cutting off the shoots, the berries ripen faster.
How to shelter grapes for the winter
They begin to cover the grapes with the appearance of the first frost. Cover the vine in several ways. The most common are:
- partial cover
- full cover
When hilling, a small bump 10-25 cm high is made around the seedling. This method is quite simple and can only protect in light frosts. Before hilling, the vine is treated with pest preparations.
Many gardeners bury the plant with earth for the winter. This method involves the installation of wooden pegs, which will act as an identification mark. These pegs will help with digging.
To protect young bushes from frost, various materials are used: cloth, plastic bottles, straw, etc. Then sprinkle with earth. In the spring, loosen the ground at the base for oxygen to reach the roots.
The partial cover method involves the use of special materials (cloth or straw) that are draped and pulled together with twine. Such a structure should fit snugly to the soil. Since part of the vine remains open, the plant can suffer from severe frosts.
The most effective way to protect a plant from winter frost is to completely cover it. At the end of November, the vine is removed from the trellises, the shoots are tied and bent to the ground. For covering material use an old blanket, blanket, film, etc. This procedure should be done carefully, slightly twisting the vines.
Among the many covering materials, it is not recommended to use sawdust or fallen leaves, since at high humidity the risk of developing fungi and mold increases. In order for the vine to be healthy and give a rich harvest, it is important to properly care for the plant, observing the recommendations and timing of autumn care.