Cucumber is a vegetable plant popular with gardeners from almost all over the world. This is due to its taste, the ability to eat fresh and canned, unpretentious and easy to grow.
Man began to cultivate cucumbers as early as four millennia BC. There are a huge number of varieties and hybrids of this vegetable in the world. For guaranteed early harvests, parthenocarpic cucumber varieties should be considered.
- Botanical description of cucumber, parthenocarp
- The best parthenocarpic cucumber varieties for common garden plots
Botanical description of cucumber, parthenocarp
Cucumbers belong to annual herbaceous plants from the genus Cucumber, the Pumpkin family. The stem of most cucumbers is creeping, equipped with antennae, with which the plant clings to vertical supports and grows upward. Cucumber whips can be more than one meter in length. In many varieties, the stems are pubescent with small thorns.
A leaf blade with a well-defined division into five lobes. The flower is yellow, funnel-shaped.
Genetically, cucumber has many similarities to pumpkin and melon, its fruit is called pumpkin. According to its gastronomic and taste characteristics, the cucumber is classified as a vegetable.
Traditionally, the harvest of cucumbers is started when they are still very far from biological maturity. Only those cucumbers from which you need to get seed material for planting in the next season or for breeding work are given to ripen. Fruits, as a rule, are elongated, green, white - green in color of various shades. When ripe, they acquire a yellow - brown color.
Currently, you can grow cucumber crops at any time of the year, since greenhouses of various designs are available to most gardeners.
If in the first half of the century, when growing cucumbers in closed ground, vegetable growers had to take care of hives with pollinating insects in greenhouses, then by the end of the 20th century, breeders used the property of cucumbers to tie fruits on female flowers without pollination.
In botany, this property is called parthenocarp. The first greenhouse parthenocarpic hybrids were large-fruited, half a meter long, they hardly won the love of the consumer, although they had a good taste and smell, and did not have pronounced ripe seeds.
Over time, cucumbers appeared - parthenocarpics with the usual type of fruit. These varieties are convenient to use both for indoor use and for getting an early harvest of cucumbers in the open field. After all, it is not uncommon to cover the planting of cucumbers from the weather with a film, which stops the access of pollinators.
Parthenocarpic cucumbers should be distinguished from self-pollinated ones. The former give ovary on female flowers without pollination or self-pollination, while the latter have both stamens and pistils in one flower, and cucumbers give an ovary as a result of pollination that occurs inside one flower.
The best parthenocarpic cucumber varieties for common garden plots
It should be noted that even in parthenocarpic varieties and hybrids, the ability to set fruits is expressed in different ways. In some, up to 90% of female flowers give an ovary without pollination, while in others, 50% of female flowers remain sterile. In order to increase yields, it is more profitable to give preference to cucumbers with strongly pronounced parthenocarpic properties.
Noteworthy are quite new varieties such as Zadavaka F1 and Bully F 1. These cucumbers are distinguished by their hardiness and are adapted to grow in the shade, under adverse weather conditions and at low temperatures. The Zadavaka gives a harvest 45 days after germination, and the Zadavaka - 40 -42 days. The big plus of these cucumbers is the complete absence of bitterness. Fruits are crispy, 8 - 9 cm long.
They belong to varieties of universal purpose, suitable for any type of processing and conservation, for fresh consumption:
- Parthenocapic cucumber Emelya F 1 is one of the most resistant varieties to cucumber diseases. Fruits are elongated, up to 15 cm in size, of even green color. Emelya is one of the most productive representatives of cucumbers - parthenocarpics. The crop can be harvested in 41 - 42 days.
- White Angel F 1 is an interesting cucumber, with an average ripening period, edible cucumbers can be harvested 55 days after germination. If an earlier planting is planned, then it is better to grow under a film cover, with a late planting it grows well in the open field. When the fruits are just tied and grow, they are white in color, a change in color to light salad is a signal to pick cucumbers. It goes for salting, but is more suitable for fresh consumption.
In addition to the above, the following varieties are popular:
- Connie F1, gives gherkins up to 6 cm, no bitterness, early
- Miranda F1, cold hardy, with a strong cucumber aroma
- Emerald stream F1, fruitful, with cucumbers up to 50 cm
Parthenocarpic cucumber varieties can be grown both through seedlings and by sowing in the ground. Many of them need a special formation of the bush, in which the main shoot is not pinched, the lower shoots are removed, and the upper lateral ones are pinched as they grow.
With abundant flowering, it is better to remove a number of female flowers, this increases the quality and quantity of cucumbers. Tall cucumbers need vertical supports, they can be either special trellises or tall, straight plants such as corn or sunflowers.
To get a guaranteed yield, it is necessary to plant not one, but three or four varieties of parthenocarpic cucumbers.
Video description of Masha cucumber: